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2021考研英語新題型解析:段落排序題的錦囊妙計

2020-11-10 17:49:00| 河北中公教育
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在英一試卷中,新題型主要由三種題型組成—填空式閱讀,段落排序題以及標題匹配題。今天我們來著重講一講段落排序題。

信息匹配題要求考生對一篇亂序的六七個段落,依次排序。其中一到兩段已經給出明確的段落。這個題目最大的特點就是一步錯,可能導致步步錯。大家在備考的時候可能會存在為難情緒,值得一提的是,有的考生可能“祈禱”不要考這個題。其實,這種看似很難的題,是有很強的技巧性的,如果大家掌握了我們的解題技巧,題目難度其實不是很大,主要考察了我們考生的段落銜接意識和理解能力。面對這一道題時,我們可以運用如下技巧來進行解題:

1. 拿到題目,瀏覽六/七個選項,標注選項中(尤其是首句和末句)鮮明的銜接標志詞(例如指代,數字,邏輯關系詞,時間順序等);

2. 如果首段沒有給出,則需要先確定首段;如果首段已經給出,則按照順序注意解題,注意關注選項首句和末句的銜接關系。

3. 可以打破常規,如判斷某兩段文字必然銜接,結合題目順序,進行反推。

4. 通讀文章,檢查一致性和連貫性。

下面,我們就以2019年英語一的段落排序題為例,進行詳細的講解和說明:

Part B

Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

A. These tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments –from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding---then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.

B. In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People, Dale Carnegie wrote: "There is only one way...to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. "This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.

C. None of this will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.

D. Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.

E. There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell, “Yes,”and I yell. “No,” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other's positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.

F. These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don't get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.

G.Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Pairs of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.

41__→42__→F→43___→44___→C→45__

第一步,瀏覽六/七個選項,標注選項中(尤其是首句和末句)鮮明的銜接標志詞(例如指代,數字,邏輯關系詞,時間順序等):

A. 首These tools can help

末the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.

B. 首 In his 1936 work

末:無

C. 首 None of this will be easy

末:無

D. 首Of course, many discussions are not so successful.(前文可能提及discussion succeessful)

末:無

E. 首 There is a better way to win arguments.

末:無

F. 首:These views of arguments also undermine reason.

末:None of these tricks will help you understand .. but they can help you win-in one way.

G. 首:無 :無

第二步,如果首段沒有給出,則需要先確定首段;如果首段已經給出,則按照順序注意解題,注意關注選項首句和末句的銜接關系。

A. 首These tools can help

末the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.

B. 首 In his 1936 work

末:無

C. 首 None of this will be easy

末:無

D. 首Of course, many discussions are not so successful.(前文可能提及discussion succeessful)

末:無

E. 首 There is a better way to win arguments.

末:無

F. 首:These views of arguments also undermine reason.

末:None of these tricks will help you understand .. but they can help you win-in one way.

G. 首:無 :無

根據文章后的題目順序,首段沒有給出,需要判斷首句:觀察選項發現可能是B或者G,比較二者可以發現:G首Carnegie 人名為 B首Dale Carnegie的縮寫,所以可以判斷,B應該是 B,則:41填寫B項

41. B→42__→F→43___→44___→C→45__

接下來觀察文章的首末段銜接,發現:

F首末:None of these tricks will help you understand .. but they can help you win-in one way.

E首 There is a better way to win arguments.

判定: FE必然相連,已知F所以43,空填E

41. B→42__→F→43 E→44___→C→45__

現在我們還剩下ADG三個選項,對應每個段落首末句指代信息發現你無法還原,則可以一個空一個空帶入驗證,首先看B末與ADG首句相連情況:

B末: Dale Carnegie wrote: "There is only one way...to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. "This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.

A. 首These tools can help

D. 首Of course, many discussions are not so successful.(前文可能提及discussion succeessful)

G首:Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights

對比可知,G項更為恰當,原因:B提出了卡內基的觀點,G對他的觀點進行點評。其他兩個選項和B末無法建立聯系。因此:42 G

41. B→42. G→F→43. E→44___→C→45__

帶著這個思路,我們繼續看44空,可以對比E末和 A與D首句。

E末:Now we can understand each other's positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.

A. 首These tools can help

D. 首Of course, many discussions are not so successful.(前文可能提及discussion succeessful)

通過觀察發現E末與AD聯系都不是特別緊密,這個時候我們可以看將目光轉換至45空,比較 C末和AD首句;

C. None of this will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.

A. 首These tools can help

D. 首Of course, many discussions are not so successful.(前文可能提及discussion succeessful)

此時,我們可以發現,C末一直在提及各種辯論建議,可以對應 A項these tools,因此C和A相連,所以45. A, 44. D

41.B→42. G→F→43. E→44.D→C→45.A

下面總結一下這套題的解題方法,首先在拿到題目后,瀏覽六/七個選項,標注選項首句和末句鮮明的銜接標志。結合首段已經給出,按照順序注意解題,注意關注選項首句和末句的銜接關系,結合選項可以判斷文章中兩段文字必然銜接,再結合題目順序,進行反推。最后,通讀文章,檢查一致性和連貫性。2019年這套題目難度在往年中屬于難度偏高的題目,難點在于找到銜接關系,對此大家一定要耐得住性子,細心尋找段落首末銜接處(如原詞或者指代還原)。

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